The Group has consistently applied the following accounting policies to all periods presented in these consolidated financial statements except if mentioned otherwise:
6.1 Basis of consolidation
The Group accounts for business combinations using the acquisition method when control is transferred to the Group. The consideration transferred in the acquisition is generally measured at fair value, as are the identifiable net assets acquired. Any goodwill that arises is tested annually for impairment. Any gain on a bargain purchase is recognised in profit or loss immediately. Transaction costs are expensed as incurred, except if related to the issue of debt or equity securities. The consideration transferred does not include amounts related to the settlement of pre-existing relationships. Such amounts are generally recognised in profit or loss. Any contingent consideration is measured at fair value at the date of acquisition. If an obligation to pay contingent consideration that meets the definition of a financial instrument is classified as equity, then it is not remeasured and settlement is accounted for within equity. Otherwise, other contingent consideration is remeasured at fair value at each reporting date and subsequent changes in the fair value of the contingent consideration are recognised in profit or loss.
NCI are measured initially at their proportionate share
of the acquiree’s identifiable net assets at the date of acquisition. Changes in the Group’s interest in a subsidiary
that do not result in a loss of control are accounted for as
Loss of control
When the Group loses control over a subsidiary, it derecognises the assets and liabilities of the subsidiary, and any related NCI and other components of equity. Any resulting gain or loss is recognised in profit or loss. Any interest retained in the former subsidiary is measured at fair value when control is lost.
Transactions eliminated on consolidation
Intra-group balances and transactions and any unrealised income and expenses arising from intra-group transactions,
are eliminated. Unrealised gains arising from transactions
with equity accounted investees are eliminated against
the investment to the extent of the Group’s interest in the investee. Unrealised losses are eliminated in the same way as unrealised gains, but only to the extent that there is no evidence of impairment.
6.2 Foreign currency
Foreign currency transactions
Transactions in foreign currencies are translated into the respective functional currencies of Group companies at the exchange rates at the dates of the transactions.
Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated into the functional currency at the exchange rate at the reporting date. Non-monetary assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value in a foreign currency are translated into the functional currency at the exchange rate when the fair value was determined. Non-monetary items that are measured based on historical cost in a foreign currency are translated at the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Foreign currency differences are generally recognised in profit or loss and presented within finance costs.
The assets and liabilities of foreign operations, including goodwill and fair value adjustments arising on acquisition, are translated at the exchange rates at the reporting date. The income and expenses of foreign operations are translated at the exchange rates at the dates of the transactions. Foreign currency differences are recognised in OCI and accumulated in the translation reserve, except to the extent that the translation difference is allocated to NCI.
6.3 Impairment of Assets
6.3.1 Financial instruments and contract assets
(a) POLICY APPLICABLE FROM 1 APRIL 2018
The Group recognises loss allowances for ECLs on financial assets measured at amortised cost.
Loss allowances for trade receivables is always measured at an amount equal to lifetime Expected Credit Loss (ECL).
When determining whether the credit risk of a financial asset has increased significantly since initial recognition and when estimating ECLs, the Group considers reasonable and supportable information that is relevant and available without undue cost or effort. This includes both quantitative and qualitative information and analysis, based on the Group’s historical experience and informed credit assessment and including forward-looking information.
Measurement of ECLs
ECLs are a probability-weighted estimate of credit losses. Credit losses are measured as the present value of all cash shortfalls (i.e. the difference between the cash flows due to the entity in accordance with the contract and the cash flows that the Group expects to receive). ECLs are discounted at the effective interest rate of the financial asset.
(B) POLICY APPLICABLE PRIOR TO 1 APRIL 2018
A financial asset not carried at fair value through profit or loss is assessed at each reporting date to determine whether there is objective evidence that it is impaired. A financial asset is impaired if objective evidence indicates that a loss event has occurred after the initial recognition of the asset, and that the loss event had a negative effect on the estimated future cash flows of that asset that can be estimated reliably. Objective evidence that financial assets (including equity securities) are impaired can include default or delinquency by a debtor, restructuring of an amount due to the Group on terms that the Group would not consider otherwise, indications that a debtor or issuer will enter bankruptcy, or the disappearance of an active market for a security.
Financial assets measured at amortised cost
The Group considered evidence of impairment for these assets at both an individual asset and a collective level. All individually significant assets were individually assessed for impairment. Those found not to be impaired were then collectively assessed for any impairment that had been incurred but not yet individually identified. Assets that were not individually significant were collectively assessed for impairment. Collective assessment was carried out by grouping together assets with similar risk characteristics.
In assessing collective impairment, the Group used historical information on the timing of recoveries and the amount of loss incurred, and made an adjustment if current economic and credit conditions were such that the actual losses were likely to be greater or lesser than suggested by historical trends.
An impairment loss was calculated as the difference between an asset's carrying amount and the present value of the estimated future cash flows discounted at the asset's original effective interest rate. Losses were recognised in profit or loss and reflected in an allowance account. When the Group considered that there were no realistic prospects of recovery of the asset, the relevant amounts were written off. If the amount of impairment loss subsequently decreased and the decrease was related objectively to an event occurring after the impairment was recognised, then the previously recognised impairment loss was reversed through profit or loss.
Available-for-sale financial assets
Impairment losses on available-for-sale financial assets were recognised by reclassifying the losses accumulated in the fair value reserve to profit or loss. The amount reclassified was the difference between the acquisition cost (net of any principal repayment and amortisation) and the current fair value, less any impairment loss previously recognised in profit or loss. If the fair value of an impaired available-for-sale debt security subsequently increased and the increase was related objectively to an event occurring after the impairment loss was recognised, then the impairment loss was reversed through profit or loss. Impairment losses recognised in profit or loss
for an investment in an equity instrument classified as
available-for-sale were not reversed through profit or loss.
6.3.2 Non-financial assets
At each reporting date, the Group reviews the carrying amounts of its non-financial assets (other than biological assets, investment property, inventories and deferred tax assets) to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indication exists, then the asset’s recoverable amount is estimated. Goodwill is tested annually for impairment. For impairment testing, assets are grouped together into the smallest group of assets that generates cash inflows from continuing use that are largely independent of the cash inflows of other assets or CGUs. Goodwill arising from a business combination is allocated to CGUs or groups of CGUs that are expected to benefit from the synergies of the combination. The recoverable amount of an asset or CGU is the greater of its value in use and its fair value less costs to sell. Value in use is based on the estimated future cash flows, discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset or CGU.
An impairment loss is recognised if the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount. Impairment losses are recognised in profit or loss. They are allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the CGU, and then to reduce the carrying amounts of the other assets in the CGU on a pro rata basis.
An impairment loss in respect of goodwill is not reversed. For other assets, an impairment loss is reversed only to the extent that the asset's carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation or amortisation, if no impairment loss had been recognised.
A provision is recognised if, as a result of a past event, the Group has a present legal or constructive obligation that can be estimated reliably, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. Provisions are determined by discounting the expected future cash flows at a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and, where appropriate, the risks specific to the liability.
Determining whether an
arrangement contains a lease
At inception of an arrangement, the Group determines whether the arrangement is or contains a lease.
At inception or on reassessment of an arrangement that contains a lease, the Group separates payments and other consideration required by the arrangement into those for the lease and those for other elements on the basis of their relative fair values. If the Group concludes for a finance lease that it is impracticable to separate the payments reliably, then an asset and a liability are recognised at an amount equal to the fair value of the underlying asset; subsequently, the liability is reduced as payments are made and an imputed finance cost on the liability is recognised using the Group’s incremental borrowing rate.
Leases of property, plant and equipment that transfer to the Group substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance leases. The leased assets are measured initially at an amount equal to the lower of their fair value and the present value of the minimum lease payments. Subsequent to initial recognition, the assets are accounted for in accordance with the accounting policy applicable to that asset. Assets held under other leases are classified as operating leases and are not recognised in the Group’s statement of financial position.
Payments made under operating leases are recognised in profit or loss on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. Lease incentives received are recognised as an integral part of the total lease expense, over the term of the lease. Minimum lease payments made under finance leases are apportioned between the finance expense and the reduction of the outstanding liability. The finance expense is allocated to each period during the lease term so as to produce a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability.
6.6 New accounting standards issued but not effective as at reporting date
SLFRS 16 Leases
The Group is required to adopt “SLFRS 16 Leases” from
1 April 2019.
SLFRS 16 introduces a single, on-balance sheet lease accounting model for lessees. A lessee recognises a
right-of-use asset representing its right to use the underlying asset and a lease liability representing its obligation to make lease payments. There are recognition exemptions for
short-term leases and leases of low-value items. Lessor accounting remains similar to the current standard – i.e. lessors continue to classify leases as finance or operating leases.
SLFRS 16 replaces existing leases guidance, including LKAS 17 Leases, IFRIC 4 Determining whether an Arrangement contains a Lease, SIC-15 Operating Leases - Incentives and SIC-27 Evaluating the Substance of Transactions Involving the Legal Form of a Lease.
Leases in which the Group is a lessee
The Group will recognise new assets and liabilities for its operating leases of office buildings. The nature of expenses related to those leases will now change because the Group will recognise a depreciation charge for right-of-use assets and interest expense on lease liabilities.
Previously, the Group recognised operating lease expense
on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease, and recognised assets and liabilities only to the extent that there was a timing difference between actual lease payments and the expense recognised.
In addition, the Group will no longer recognise provisions for operating leases that it assesses to be onerous. Instead,
the Group will include the payments due under the lease in its lease liability.
Leases in which the Group is a lessor
The Group will reassess the classification of sub-leases in which the Group is a lessor. Based on the information currently available. No significant impact is expected for other leases in which the Group is a lessor.
The Group is in the process of assessing the potential impact on its Financial Statements that could result on application of SLFRS 16.